Efficacy of one dose vaccination against experimental infection with two Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains

Fri, 06 Oct 2017

This study assessed the efficacy of vaccination against experimental infection with two genetically different M. hyopneumoniae strains in weaned piglets.

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Background:

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is the primary agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. Pigs are often infected with different M. hyopneumoniae strains. This study assessed the efficacy of vaccination against experimental infection with two genetically different M. hyopneumoniae strains in weaned piglets.

At 33 days of age (D0), 45 M. hyopneumoniae-free piglets were randomly assigned to three different groups: 1) negative control group (NCG; n = 5): not vaccinated, not infected, 2) positive control group (PCG; n = 20): not vaccinated, infected, and 3) vaccination group (VG; n = 20): single vaccination with an inactivated whole-cell M. hyopneumoniae vaccine (Hyogen®, Ceva) (D1), infected.

The PCG and VG were endotracheally inoculated with 7 × 107 CCU in 7 ml of the highly virulent M. hyopneumoniae strain F7.2C (D24) and 7 × 107 CCU in 7 ml low virulent strain F1.12A (D25).

A respiratory disease score (RDS) was assessed from D24 until D53. At D53 (euthanasia), macroscopic lung lesions (MLL) were scored, log copies of M. hyopneumoniae DNA (qPCR) and IL-1 and IL-6-concentrations (ELISA) on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were determined.

Results:

The RDS and MLL at euthanasia were respectively 0, 1.20 and 0.55 (P < 0.001) and 0, 7.56 and 0.68 (P < 0.001) for NCG, PCG and VG, respectively.

The qPCR results for PCG and VG were 3.99 and 1.78 log copies (P < 0.001), respectively, with a significant difference between PCG and VG.

The IL-1 and IL-6 results at euthanasia for NCG, PCG and VG were 17.61, 1283.39 and 53.04 pg/ml (P < 0.001) and 148.10, 493.35 and 259.80 pg/ml (P = 0.004), respectively with a significant difference between PCG and VG.

Conclusions:

Vaccination with Hyogen® in pigs was efficacious against an experimental challenge with both a low and highly virulent M. hyopneumoniae strain as the vaccinated pigs coughed significantly less, and showed significantly less lung lesions compared to the non-vaccinated challenged pigs: the vaccinated animals showed a 52.9% lower RDS and 91.0% lower MLL compared to the PCG.

In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected at the necropsy of the vaccinated pigs, a significantly lower amount of M. hyopneumoniae-DNA and a significantly lower IL-1 and IL-6 concentration was found compared to the pigs of the PCG.

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